WHAT ARE FREQUENCY CONVERTERS:
Frequency Converters for 400Hz, 100Hz, 60Hz, 50Hz, & 25Hz
Frequency converters are machines that convert power from one frequency to another frequency. Either by means of a double conversion Static Frequency Converters or by using a motor generator set called a Rotary Frequency Converter. In the double conversion method, the Rectifier converts AC into DC and the Inverter converts DC back into AC. In an Motor Generator set, this is completed by either changing the rotational speed of the generator in the versions with belts & sheaves or the gear box and by means of motors and generators with a different number of poles operating to achieve the same result of producing the desired output frequency.
Computers and small electronics operate with switch mode power supplies capable of operating at both 50HZ and 60HZ. In this case the only item you may need is a plug converter as 50HZ outlets are not the same as 60Hz outlets for the following reason. As 60Hz and 50Hz operate at different frequency, you do not want to plug equipment into the wrong power source. However, if your equipment is operating at 208V (which is used for both 50Hz and 60Hz), you might be OK. If not, you run the risk of damaging equipment and or harming yourself. Once you let the smoke out of the equipment, you cannot put it back in.
Larger and 3 phase equipment cannot operate on the wrong frequency. This can cause damage or premature wear on the equipment. 50 Hz designed equipment cannot operate at 60 Hz. If you force the equipment to operate outside its design criteria, there will be trouble. Most likely, the equipment will be damaged immediately (remember the smoke)? If not immediately, it will fail over time from fatigue and overheating. With our ever growing global economy, equipment from other parts of the world are being used more frequently in countries that they were not manufactured in.
This usually results in the need of a Frequency Converter (also called a frequency changer). This will change the local utility’s frequency (and sometime its voltage) as needed. As a result, it will be compatible with the power requirements of the equipment you are trying to operate (also called the load).
Which Industries Need Frequency Converters:
Specific industries have unique frequency requirements and this is based on how they supply power to their equipment. Aviation and Weapons systems require 400Hz, therefore equipment used on the ground operating at 400Hz require ground power support for the electrical system.
In addition to aviation and military using 400Hz, Rail utilizes 25Hz, 91.66Hz or 100Hz to run their signaling systems. Ship yards and boat docks require shore power conversion. Ships built in 50HZ countries have electrical power systems operating at 50HZ. In this case you will need a frequency converter to match the electrical needs of ships being built, repaired or docked. There are also many unique and/or variable frequencies needed in laboratories and testing facilities.
When equipment manufactured in one country and used in another, chances are that you not only have to convert the voltage, but you will also need to convert the frequency. The most common frequencies are 50Hz and 60Hz as they are used in most commercial machines, however, there are many applications not related to this issue that need for frequency converters. Hydro power, for example produces 25Hz.
So WHY are there so many different frequencies? It is very basic and has to do with the RPM that the prime power producer spins at. 1500 RPM=50Hz, while 1800 RPM=60Hz utilizing a 4 pole synchronous generator. With the globalization of the world’s economies intensifying, the need for frequency conversion is increasing as multinationals from 60Hz countries are doing more business in 50Hz countries and vice-versa.
Frequency Converter Technology:
There are 2 basic types of Frequency Converters: Rotary Frequency Converters, manufactured with the use of a Motor Generator and Solid State (Static) Frequency Converter, manufactured with the use of semi-conductors and power stages. The Rotary machine is brute force as opposed to the Static machine. The static unit is for non industrial applications. There are other factors to considered when deciding on a Frequency Converter. One factor is if you need the converter to also maintain power output when the utility is no longer available. In this case, a converter will also be a Uninterupptible Power Supply, called a Frequency Converter UPS.
If the Frequency Converter also needs to clean up a non stable input frequency like accepting a poor frequency range on the input and produce a stable output frequency and voltage, a Dynamic Frequency Regulator should be used. This unit allows for a very unstable utility, while producing the required output.
Utilizing experience in the 400Hz industry and from early main-frames, PS&C offers two technologies to solve this power Frequency Converter problem; Static (Solid State) Frequency Converters and Rotary (Motor-Generator) Frequency Converters. There are several factors which will help identify which frequency conversion solution is right for your project. PS&C's technically versed applications group will help you make an assessment of your application and select the best solution for your specific requirement.
What are Some Frequency Converter Applications:
- A factory opens in China with U.S. made manufacturing equipment (50/60Hz Converter).
- A small airport decides to add helicopter service and repair center (400Hz Converter).
- American manufacturer purchases machinery from European factory (50/60Hz Converter).
- A railway decides to increase the amount of track into new territories (100/25Hz Converter).